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Friday 23 March 2018

PL/SQL For Loop

PL/SQL FOR loop is used when we need to execute set of statements for the specific number of times and loop operates between the start and end counter values. The counter is always incremented by one and once the counter reaches to end integer value, the loop terminates

The syntax of PL/SQL FOR Loop is like this

FOR counter_variable IN start value.. end value LOOP

statements to execute 


PL/SQL While Loop

PL/SQL WHILE loop is used to execute statements as long as given condition is true and the condition is checked at the beginning of each iteration

The syntax of PL/SQL While loop is like this

WHILE condition

statements to execute


PL/SQL Basic Exit Loop

In PL/SQL Basic Loop all statements inside the block are executed at least once before loop termination, Basic loop encloses statement between LOOP and END LOOP and there must be an EXIT or EXIT-WHEN condition to terminate the loop

The syntax of Basic Exit loop is like this


statements to execute



See these examples for better understanding

PL/SQL Loops , Iterative Statement in PL/SQL

Loops are used to repeat execution of a statement or a set of statements multiple times on base of a condition or expression
EXIT and EXIT-WHEN keywords are used to terminate the loop

EXIT- terminates the loop unconditionally and passes control to the next statement after the loop
EXIT-WHEN- terminates the loop when EXIT-WHEN clause is checked and if returns true then the loop is terminated and control is passed to next statement after the loop

The basic syntax of Loop in PL/SQL is like this


Set of statements


Thursday 22 March 2018

PL/SQL CASE Statement, Decision Making Statement in PL/SQL

Like real life in programming sometimes we need to execute some code on a specific condition, PL/SQL CASE statement allows us to execute a sequence of instructions based on a selector (A variable, function, expression etc)
and if selector value is equal to value or expression in WHEN clause then corresponding THEN clause will execute and process the statements

Wednesday 21 March 2018

PL/SQL Conditions, IF-ELSE Conditional Statement

Like other programming languages, PL/SQL supports decision making statements, These statements are also called conditional statement

Basic Syntax of IF-ELSE is like this in PL/SQL

IF (Condition 1)


Statement to execute (if condition 1 is true)

ELSIF (Condition 2)


Statement to execute (if condition 2 is true)


Statement to execute (if condition 1& 2 both are false)


For a better understanding of concept look at these examples

Friday 9 March 2018

PL/SQL Variables and Constants

A variable in any programming language is the name of space where values are stored and controlled by our code/program

  • We can not use reserve keyword as a variable name 
  • Variable length should not exceed 30 characters
  • The variable name consists of letters followed by other letters, dollar sign, underscore and numerals
  • The variable name should be clear and easy to understand

Here we'll learn how to declare and initialize variables in PL/SQL

The basic syntax for declaring a variable in PL/SQL is following

variable_name [CONSTANT] datatype [NOT NULL] [:= | DEFAULT initial_value] 

Here variable_name is the identifier of variable and datatype is a valid PL/SQL datatype. CONSTANT and DEFAULT are keywords used to define constants and set default values of variables

Wednesday 7 March 2018

PL/SQL Basic Syntax, Block Structure and Anonymous block

PL/SQL is highly structured language and it's program units are written in the block of code, In this tutorial, we'll learn about basic syntax and the block structure of PL/SQL

A piece of code that is organized in a properly defined sequence is called a Block. A PL/SQL Block consists of 3 parts

<<declaration >>
--Declare Variables,Constants, Cursors and all elements

<<executable statements>>
--SQL, PL/SQL Commands 

<<exception handling>>
--Code to handle the exception


Tuesday 6 March 2018

PL/SQL Tutorial - What is PL/SQL, Features and Advantages of PL/SQL

PL/SQL is developed by Oracle Corporation to increase/enhance capabilities of SQL, PL/SQL stands for Procedural Language extension to SQL . PL/SQL is highly structured and expressive language and because of its expressive syntax it is very easy to understand and learn

PL/SQL is integrated with Oracle Database and can be called from any other programming language. It is tightly integrated with SQL so it's easy to learn PL/SQL if you have knowledge of SQL