Like other programming languages, R supports many different data types. You must have seen that variables are used to store data in a program and a data type is assigned to a variable and that variable can hold only that type of data. In this post, we’ll learn about R data types and R objects.

Basic data types in R programming are Numeric, Integer, Character, Logical and Complex and other than this R has some unique data types that are called R Objects.

## Vectors in R

A Vector is basically a set of values of the same basic data type like numeric character etc. Vector in R is created using the * c()* function that represents a combination of elements.

See this example

# A Numeric Vector numeric_vector <- c(10, 20, 30) # A Character Vector character_vector <- c("a", "b", "c") # A Boolean Vector boolean_vector <-c(TRUE,FALSE,TRUE)

The output on R Console is

## Matrices in R

R supports Matrices and a Matrix is a collection of data values in 2 dimensions of the same basic data type, R creates a matrix of values using a ** matrix() **function.

See this example

Here **c(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9)** is a numeric vector

**nrow** is the number of rows in the matrix

**ncol** is the number of columns in the matrix

#Create a matrix using Vector test_matrix<-matrix(c(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9), nrow=3, ncol=3) #Print matrix on console print(test_matrix)

The output on R Console is

## Arrays in R

Arrays are the same as any other programming language and in R array is same as a matrix but it can have more than two dimensions. Array in R is created using * array()* function and uses a vector as input and dim value to create arrays.

Here **dim =c(2,2,4)** means that 4 arrays will be created of 2×2.

#We have two vectors here v1 <- c(1,2,3,7,8,9) v2 <- c(4,5,6,10,11,12,13,14,15,16) #Create array using vectors test_array <- array(c(v1,v2),dim = c(2,2,4)) #print the array on the console print(test_array)

The output on R Console is

## Lists in R

A List is a set of values that can have the different basic data type, In R List is created using * list()* function.

#A list with different data types #Declare a numeric vector numeric_vector<-c(1,2,3) #Create list test_list<- list("Ashish Awasthi", numeric_vector, 5.3) #Print list print(test_list)

The output on R Console

## Factors in R

Factors are created using vectors as base and stores unique values as levels, In R Factor object is created using * factor()* function.

# Create a vector with duplicate values emp_names <- c('James','Ram','James','Ashish','Ram','Ashish','James','Ram') # Create a factor object using vector factor_emp <- factor(emp_names) # Print the factor object print(factor_emp)

The output on R Console is

## Data Frames in R

Data Frame is used for storing data in tables, and this tabular data can have multiple types of vectors like numeric, characters etc. Data Frame can be created using * data.frame()* function.

#A Character Vector string_vector <-c("Ashish", "Awasthi","R") #A Numeric Vector numeric_vector <- c(10, 20, 30.5) #A Boolean Vector boolean_vector<- c(TRUE, FALSE, TRUE) # Create the data frame using all 3 vectors test_df <- data.frame(string_vector,numeric_vector,boolean_vector) #Print result print(test_df)

The output on R Console

Though this post gives an idea of using variables, In the next post, we’ll learn more about using variables in R programming.

**Cheers 🙂 Happy Learning**

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